How to write an essay

Below are brief summaries of each of the ten steps to writing an essay. Select the links for
more info on any particular step, or use the blue navigation bar on the left to proceed through
the writing steps. How To Write an Essay can be viewed sequentially, as if going through ten
sequential steps in an essay writing process, or can be explored by individual topic.
1. Research: Begin the essay writing process by researching your topic, making yourself an
expert. Utilize the internet, the academic databases, and the library. Take notes and immerse
yourself in the words of great thinkers.
2. Analysis: Now that you have a good knowledge base, start analyzing the arguments of the
essays you’re reading. Clearly define the claims, write out the reasons, the evidence. Look for
weaknesses of logic, and also strengths. Learning how to write an essay begins by learning
how to analyse essays written by others.
3. Brainstorming: Your essay will require insight of your own, genuine essay-writing brilliance.
Ask yourself a dozen questions and answer them. Meditate with a pen in your hand. Take
walks and think and think until you come up with original insights to write about.
4. Thesis: Pick your best idea and pin it down in a clear assertion that you can write your entire
essay around. Your thesis is your main point, summed up in a concise sentence that lets the
reader know where you’re going, and why. It’s practically impossible to write a good essay
without a clear thesis.
5. Outline: Sketch out your essay before straightway writing it out. Use one-line sentences to
describe paragraphs, and bullet points to describe what each paragraph will contain. Play with
the essay’s order. Map out the structure of your argument, and make sure each paragraph is

6. Introduction: Now sit down and write the essay. The introduction should grab the reader’s
attention, set up the issue, and lead in to your thesis. Your intro is merely a buildup of the
issue, a stage of bringing your reader into the essay’s argument.
(Note: The title and first paragraph are probably the most important elements in your essay.
This is an essay-writing point that doesn’t always sink in within the context of the classroom.
In the first paragraph you either hook the reader’s interest or lose it. Of course your teacher,
who’s getting paid to teach you how to write an essay, will read the essay you’ve written
regardless, but in the real world, readers make up their minds about whether or not to read
your essay by glancing at the title alone.)

7. Paragraphs: Each individual paragraph should be focused on a single idea that supports
your thesis. Begin paragraphs with topic sentences, support assertions with evidence, and
expound your ideas in the clearest, most sensible way you can. Speak to your reader as if he
or she were sitting in front of you. In other words, instead of writing the essay, try talking the

8. Conclusion: Gracefully exit your essay by making a quick wrap-up sentence, and then end
on some memorable thought, perhaps a quotation, or an interesting twist of logic, or some
call to action. Is there something you want the reader to walk away and do? Let him or her
know exactly what.
9. Style: Format your essay according to the correct guidelines for citation. All borrowed ideas
and quotations should be correctly cited in the body of your text, followed up with a Works
Cited (references) page listing the details of your sources.
10. Language: You’re not done writing your essay until you’ve polished your language by
correcting the grammar, making sentences flow, incorporating rhythm, emphasis, adjusting
the formality, giving it a level-headed tone, and making other intuitive edits. Proofread until
it reads just how you want it to sound. Writing an essay can be tedious, but you don’t want
to bungle the hours of conceptual work you’ve put into writing your essay by leaving a few
slippy misppallings and pourly wordedd phrazies (I know it is frustrating when you read a text
full of mistakes).
Use strong verbs and avoid modals to state your opinion. It is better to write: “The workplace
has evolved” than “The workplace seems to have evolved”
Do not apologize for what you are saying. An essay is about your opinion.

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