R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. It is a GNU project which is similar to the S language and environment which was developed at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T,now __Alcatel-Lucent__) by John Chambers and colleagues. R can be considered as a different implementation of S. There are some important differences, but much code written for S runs unaltered under R.

__Instructor’s question for class discussion:__

Why are statistical programming languages important to data scientists? What are some advantages __ and__ disadvantages that R programming language has over the other main statistical programming languages (i.e. Python, SAS, SQL)?